Clearly such an agent does not have a body in Kopp, S.
Natural interaction & Embodied Communication
Model-based animation the physical sense, but it can be equipped with verbal con- of coverbal gesture. Proceedings of Computer Animation versational abilities, and employ its virtual body to express pp. Equipped with a synthetic about thought. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Interpretation of Shape- and gesture, and to mimic emotions.
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Related Papers. Towards meaningful robot gesture. By Stefan Kopp and Maha Salem. Lifelike gesture synthesis and timing for conversational agents. By Stefan Kopp.
Towards an integrated model of speech and gesture production for multi-modal robot behavior. Generation and Evaluation of Communicative Robot Gesture.
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Some great pundit once remarked, "Every time has its technology, and every technology has its time. For example, key technologies that "came of age" in the s include the VLSI integrated circuit, the photocopier, the computer terminal, MOS memory, and scanners. In the s we saw the advent and growth of the personal computer, fiber optics, FAX machines, and medical imaging systems of all types. It is not too difficult to predict what some of the key technologies of the s will be; these include voice processing, image processing, wireless communications, and personal information terminals.
If we examine the various technologies noted above and look at the interval between the time the technology was "understood" and the time the technology began to mature and grow, we see a very complex and intricate relationship. For example, the basic principles of FAX were well understood for more than years.
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However, until there were established worldwide standards for transmission and reception of FAX documents, the technology remained an intellectual curiosity that was shown and discussed primarily in the research laboratory. Similarly, the concept and realization of a videophone was demonstrated at the New York World's Fair in so-called. Picturephone Service , but the first commercially viable instruments were actually produced and sold in In this case it took a bandwidth reduction from 1. Other technologies were able to leave the research laboratory rather rapidly, sometimes in response to national imperatives e.
Hence, when fiber optic lines were first mass produced in the s, it was estimated that it would take about two decades to convert the analog transmission facilities of the old Bell System to digital form. In reality the long-distance telephone network was fully digital by the end of , fully 10 plus years before predicted.
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Similarly, in the case of cellular telephony, it was predicted that it would be about a decade before there would be 1 million cellular phones in use in the United States. By the end of i. Now we come to the decade of the s and we have already seen strong evidence that the key technologies that are evolving are those that support multimedia computing, multimedia communication, ease of use, portability, and flexibility.
The vision of the s is ubiquitous, low-cost, easy-to-use communication and computation for everyone. One of the key technologies that must evolve and grow to support this vision is that of voice processing. Although research in voice processing has been carried out for several decades, it has been the confluence of cheap computation as embodied by modern digital signal processor chips , low-cost memory, and algorithm improvements that has stimulated a wide range of uses for voice processing technology across the spectrum of telecommunications and consumer, military, and specialized applications.
To get an appreciation of the progress in each of these areas of voice processing, it is worthwhile to briefly review their current capabilities. Voice coding technology has been widely used for over two decades in network transmission applications. Voice coding has also been exploited in cellular systems with the advent of the European GSM standard at Finally, low bit-rate coding for transmission has been a driving force for security applications in the U.
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In the area of voice coding for storage, perhaps the most important application is in the storage of voice messages in voice mailboxes. Typically, most voice mail systems compress the speech to 16 Kbps so as to minimize the total storage requirements of the system while maintaining high-quality voice messages.
Another recent application that relies heavily on voice coding is the digital telephone. Current capabilities include tens of seconds of voice prompts and up to about 30 minutes of message storage. Voice synthesis has advanced to the point where virtually any ASCII text message can be converted to speech, providing a message that is completely intelligible, albeit somewhat unnatural machinelike in quality.
Although the range of applications of voice synthesis is growing rapidly, several key ones have already emerged. One such application is a voice server for accessing electronic mail e-mail messages remotely, over a dialed-up telephone line. Such a service is a valuable one for people who travel extensively especially outside the United States and who do not have access to computer lines to read their mail electronically.
It is also valuable for bridging the "time gap" associated with travel when the working day where you are need not align well with the working day in your home location. Other interesting and evolving applications of voice synthesis include automated order inquiry keeping track of the progress of orders ; remote student registration course selection and placement ; proofing of text documents "listening" to your written reports, responses to e-mail, etc. Although speech recognition technology has made major advancements in the past several years, we are still a long way from the science fiction recognition machines as embodied by Hal in Stanley Kubrick's , A Space Odyssey, or R2D2 in George Lucas's Star Wars.
However, our current capability, albeit somewhat limited, has opened up a number of possibilities for improvements in the quality of life in selected areas. Based on calling volumes at the end of , about 4 billion calls per year are handled by speech recognition technology for this application alone. Most of the remaining Other recent applications of speech recognition include toys, cellular voice dialers for automobiles which promise the ultimate in safety, namely "eyes-free" and "hands-free" communication , voice routing of calls i. Speaker recognition technology is one application where the computer can outperform a human, that is, the ability of a computer to either identify a speaker from a given population or to verify an identity claim from a named speaker, exceeds that of a human trying to perform the same tasks.