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Calancha Paredes, C. Valerio, P. Cortina Gil, E. Casse, G. Recent developments on silicon detectors. Methods A , 16—20 Adloff, C. Magnan, A. Kluge, A. Takakhashi, J. Nouais, D. Mager, M. Abelleira Fernandez, J. A large hadron electron collider at CERN: report on the physics and design concepts for machine and detector. Operation of the preclinical head scanner for proton CT. Taylor, J. Proton tracking for medical imaging and dosimetry.

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Campbell, M. Schmitt, B. Matsumura, H. Improving charge-collection efficiency of SOI pixel sensors for X-ray astronomy. Butler, M. Sensor market set to soar. Guerrini, N. A high frame rate, 16 million pixels, radiation hard CMOS sensor. Anelli, A. Faruqi, G.


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Direct imaging for electron microscopy. Rogmagnoli, G.

Sedgwick, I. Barber, G. Operation of a silicon vertex detector in the NA14 photoproduction experiment. Instrm Methods A , — Contin, G. Download references. The author thanks his many colleagues in the international experimental particle physics community and especially those whose excellent presentations, articles, reviews and books are cited here. Correspondence to Philip Allport.

Evolution of Silicon Sensor Technology in Particle Physics | Frank Hartmann | Springer

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. In a collider, particles are accelerated in a large number of bunches and they counter rotate in the accelerator and keep passing through each other to produce interactions. Only data from bunch crossings containing a collision of interest are kept.

The segmentation of the signal-collecting nodes defines the detector granularity and hence ability to cope with many simultaneous hits per unit area. A detector that measures charged or neutral particle energy through measuring the particle showers they produce when they interact in a dense absorber.

In some accelerators, bunches come grouped together in time bunch trains with relatively long periods of inactivity in between them. Even after selection using the trigger, the number of electronics channels to readout is often too large, but many channels are empty. Zero suppression means only reading out channels with signals above a pre-set threshold. Adding orthogonal strips still only gives two projections, which leaves ambiguities if many particles pass through the detector. Pixels measure directly the hit coordinates space point with third coordinate constrained by the detector plane thickness.

In astronomy, the response of an optical system to a source that itself approximates an infinitely narrow point source. Different materials slow down protons to a different degree, giving differences in where protons stop for a given incident energy. A pixel is a 2D area on a detector in which the third coordinate is usually only determined by the thickness of the silicon plane, which is typically much larger than the pixel dimensions.

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Subjects Experimental particle physics. Abstract As the review of the European particle physics strategy is underway and planned future particle accelerators are being discussed worldwide, new, improved silicon tracking detector concepts are currently being studied for use at the proposed new facilities. Key points Particle physics experiments depend on the ability to accurately track the paths of particles produced in high-energy collisions. Rent or Buy article Get time limited or full article access on ReadCube.

References 1. Article Google Scholar Google Scholar Google Scholar Download references. Acknowledgements The author thanks his many colleagues in the international experimental particle physics community and especially those whose excellent presentations, articles, reviews and books are cited here. Ethics declarations Competing interests The author declares no competing interests.


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Supplementary information Supplementary Information. Glossary Bunch crossing In a collider, particles are accelerated in a large number of bunches and they counter rotate in the accelerator and keep passing through each other to produce interactions. Trigger Only data from bunch crossings containing a collision of interest are kept.

Vertexing Extrapolating tracks back to where they meet that is, to the vertex they originate from. Granularity The segmentation of the signal-collecting nodes defines the detector granularity and hence ability to cope with many simultaneous hits per unit area. Calorimeter A detector that measures charged or neutral particle energy through measuring the particle showers they produce when they interact in a dense absorber.

Bunch train In some accelerators, bunches come grouped together in time bunch trains with relatively long periods of inactivity in between them. Sensing matrix The nodes within the sensor measuring the signal arranged in a matrix of pixels.

Bibliographic Information

Zero suppression Even after selection using the trigger, the number of electronics channels to readout is often too large, but many channels are empty. Point spread function In astronomy, the response of an optical system to a source that itself approximates an infinitely narrow point source.