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A section on discourse particles has been added. The vocabulary of the copious example sentences has been updated to give it a touch of the twenty-first century. The section on modern colloquial Finnish has been considerably expanded. Internet addresses helpful for any learner of Finnish are provided which make is possible to automatically analyse the grammatical structure of any Finnish words and sentences.

It gives not only a systematic account of the structures of the written language, but also features the characteristics of colloquial Finnish. No prior knowledge is assumed on the part of the reader and grammatical rules are clearly explained without jargon. This is the ideal reference source both for those studying Finnish independently and for students in schools, colleges, universities and adult classes of all types.

I have the second edition from My dad bought it back then in the hope of learning the Finnish language he'd married a Finn. The persons have their own endings, which are added to the verb stem the third person singular often has no ending.

First person Second person Third person Singular -n -t cf. In the third person singular of the present indicative the final vowel of the stem is lengthened. In the third person singular of the present indicative the short vowel following the final consonant or syllable boundary of the inflectional stem is lengthened. The independent subject words of the third person cannot usually be omitted, but subject pronouns in the first and second persons often are, in which case the personal ending of the verb is all that indicates the person shown in brackets above. The second person plural ending -tte is also used as a polite form addressed to a single person.

The following examples illustrate the personal endings of the most important verb types cf. The nominative is the primary form of nominals in dictionaries, and it is also the most common case of most nominal words. The functions of the nominative are seen most clearly when it is compared with the partitive, the second basic case in the system.

The partitive often expresses an indefinite, non-limited quantity of something, allowing the possibility that there may exist more of it. The nominative, on the other hand, expresses either a concrete or abstract whole or a definite, limited, total quantity. The nominative plural, e.

A noun is non-divisible countable if it refers to a more or less concrete entity that cannot be divided into smaller parts in such a way that the parts share the quality of the whole. In English these nouns would be classified as singular count nouns. A noun is divisible non-countable if it refers to a concrete mass or an abstract entity that can be divided into parts in such a way that the parts share the quality of the whole.

Divisible nouns cannot normally be counted.

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Four rules follow below. Basic sentence structure 65 1 Singular, non-divisible subject nouns appear in the nominative and express a definite meaning at the beginning of the sentence b indefinite meaning at the end of the sentence. Kadulla on auto. Nainen on talossa. Talossa on nainen.

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The woman is in the house. There is a woman in the house. Kirja ilmestyi. Ilmestyi kirja. The book was published. A book was published. Pullo on kaapissa.

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Kaapissa on pullo. The bottle is in the cupboard. There is a bottle in the cupboard.

Finnish: An Essential Grammar (Routledge Essential Grammars)

Nouns at the beginning of a sentence are generally interpreted as definite, i. Sentences where both subject and object are non-divisible are often ambiguous as regards definiteness: Mies osti kirjan. Nainen hankki auton. If the word order is inverted, with the object at the beginning and the subject at the end, the object is interpreted as definite known and the subject as indefinite new : Kirjan osti mies.

A man bought the book. Singular non-divisible predicate nouns complements are always in the nominative.

Pekka on mies. Tuula on nainen. Tuo on auto. Auto tuo on! Paavo on opettaja. Pekka is a man. Tuula is a woman. This is a table. That is a car. Singular predicative adjectives are also in the nominative if the subject is a non-divisible word. Auto on sininen. The car is blue. Kone on likainen. That boat is expensive.

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Kalle is tall. Your idea was good. The machine is dirty. The cars are in the street. In the street are the cars! The men came home.

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The books cost 10 marks. The ministers went on holiday. Pekka bought the books. Leena saw the ships. Kahvi on kupissa. Liha maksaa paljon. Aika loppuu. Osta olut! Maito on valkoista. Ilma on kirkas. The food tastes good. The coffee is in the cup.

The meat is expensive. The time is up. Buy the beer!