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Guide The American Civil War1861-1863

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S77 M64 War Dept. Call Number: Maryland Stacks E U61 Gettysburg, Pa. Bockmiller and Lawrence J. C68 B63 Charleston, S. T95 Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill []. A58 Alexandria, Va. Antietam echoes by John W.

Hagerstown, Md. F79 Collingswood, N. Historicals, P9 Anderson, Jr. Call Number: Maryland Folio E T66 Crossroads of Freedom: Antietam by James M. M48 Harries by William H. R45 M8 C37 New York : Routledge, c E76 Mechanicsburg, PA : Stackpole Books, c P75 C4 H37 L44 Cole and Scott S. B2 C65 Charleston, SC : Arcadia, c L8 S33 Jefferson, N. Monocacy by Alfred S. R64 Baltimore, MD : Toomey Press, c R44 Taken at the Flood: Robert E. H37 H67 Charleston, SC : History Press, The Maryland campaign of September by Ezra A. New York; California: Savas Beatie, c C25 Baltimore, Md. G53 Silver Spring, Md.

F27 We felt that the war was over, and we would have to return home without even seeing a Yankee soldier. Ah, how we envied those that were wounded. We thought at that time that we would have given a thousand dollars to have been in the battle, and to have had our arm shot off, so we could have returned home with an empty sleeve. Jackson, along with Robert E. Lee, formed a nearly unbeatable combination in Virginia over the next couple years that kept Union forces from taking Richmond. Home field advantage can be a disadvantage.

Fresh off a Second Bull Run win and a successful invasion of Union-held Kentucky — where Confederates seated their own governor in the capital of Frankfort — Lee hoped he could demoralize Northerners, making them want to give up and, in the meantime, circle around and get into Washington from the north. Maybe he could burn Philadelphia or Baltimore while he was at it from a northern standpoint, Baltimore already seemed like a Confederate outpost.

Confederate troops could live on northern food for a while, too, helping to ration supplies back home. There were railroads and factories to capture, with supplies like shoes. The other, Gettysburg in , nearly broke Robert E. Lee, you may remember, was involved in arresting Brown there in Confederates also made gunpowder at a secret hideout directly under a Union camp at Organ Cave , West Virginia.

The Union surrendered While he frittered away the hours, mistakenly thinking his own army was outnumbered, Lee sent for reinforcements. By the time McClellan finally engaged Lee outside Sharpsburg, Maryland near Antietam Creek, it was too late and the sides were equally matched. The Confederates staved off annihilation for hours along a four-mile front.

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The Battle of Antietam was the single bloodiest day in American military history, with 23k casualties mostly injuries in the span of a few hours — more than the American Revolution, War of , and Mexican War combined. Abraham Lincoln and George B. Ambrose Burnside of the Eponymous Side-Burns, ca. Ambrose Burnside , he of the famously thick mutton chops, was the opposite of McClellan, courageous but reckless, and led the Union to a resounding defeat at Fredericksburg , Virginia at the end of America had added two important words to its vocabulary, sideburns and hooker , but the Union was no closer to victory.

For one, European countries began to distance themselves from the CSA after the debacle. Moreover, the bloodletting at Antietam gave Congressional Republicans and Lincoln a cause for reframing the war as an abolitionist crusade. He needed to frame the war in a more meaningful way and that meant the goal of abolishing slavery. Congress led the way, making their case to the skeptical Lincoln that, given the limited aim of preserving the Union, even a victory would only result in returning things to the status quo , the way they were before.

The South would still have slavery and it still might spread west. By seceding, the Confederacy was technically forfeiting its claims on western territories that were part of the U. This time, he proposed an amendment to buy and deport slaves, to be completed and phased out by Real abolitionists were outraged. Congressional Republicans pushed for a more immediate solution. It was time to merge military and political goals and rid the country of slavery, the institution that caused the war.

People then and now have criticized Lincoln for waffling on slavery, but what he was really doing was staying consistent in trying to preserve the Union. These contraband camps suffered from the same diseases as army camps, with thousands experiencing freedom for the first time only to die of typhoid or dysentery, far from home. With the Second Confiscation Act, the Union resolved to free all slaves in the Confederacy, but not until Lincoln made the South one last offer to give up on independence.

This Emancipation Proclamation would result in a constructive outcome if the North won, maybe preventing another war. For pragmatic reasons, Lincoln preserved slavery for the time being in Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware, the four slave states remaining in the Union — an offset to his suspension of habeas corpus. Almost no slaves were freed on January 1st, , the day the three-month offer expired and emancipation kicked in.

Still, the Union would continue to free slaves in the Confederacy in most places they ran across them and Maryland voted to abolish on its own in Most importantly, all slaves would be freed if the Union won the war, a promise Congress helped secure by passing the Thirteenth Amendment in Freed slaves would remain and work in the U.

Another underrated feature of the Proclamation was that it called on Blacks to fight.

The American Civil War (1861-65)

However, that backfired because it made black soldiers fight even harder and deprived the CSA of prisoners to swap for their own. Hollywood gets a lot of flak for inaccuracies in historical movies, but they did the opening chapter of this story justice with Glory They based the script loosely on the letters of Robert Gould Shaw , the white colonel and son of Boston abolitionists who commanded the Massachusetts 54th Infantry Regiment. Ultimately, k black troops fought in the war and over 40k slaves and free Blacks gave their lives for the cause.

Abolishing slavery and enlisting black soldiers were huge gambles for Lincoln. Blacks and abolitionists would support the war more than before, but northern racists might abandon the cause. Some cabinet members were most concerned with lining their own pocketbooks through contract kickbacks. The Union government was a huge customer for uniforms, guns, horses, beef, etc.

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Amidst these graft scandals, the public and press subjected the president to withering criticism as the war went poorly for the Union in the first two years. Lincoln struggled personally with depression, a difficult marriage with Mary Todd, and his youngest son Willie right, center dying of typhoid at age eleven. Lincoln identified with the story because of how many soldiers he was sacrificing to save the Union and the loss of his own son magnified the sorrow.

Mary Todd developed an addiction to Laudanum, an opium tincture. Two close friends that moved with Lincoln from Illinois to Washington had died in the war.

The American Civil War 1861 1863

Meanwhile, he met dutifully with lines of grieving parents that encircled the White House daily. Death had never been far from Lincoln. His mother died when he was nine, Indians killed his brother, and his sister died when he was 20, as did the girl he hoped to marry. Now, with ongoing threats of his own assassination, he was doing all he could to keep from going unhinged.

American Civil War () - The New York Times

He, in turn, found their conservative tactics irritating. Lincoln wanted aggression, especially aimed at destroying Richmond, not just victories between armies on the battlefield. His generals, though, were most concerned with just opposing Confederate armies and fought cautiously, never severing their own supply lines. The CSA was a reasonably large and wealthy country by global standards, but it was smaller than the Union in terms of population 3. When they did transport troops, it took cars away from food transport.

There were supply shortages stemming partly from that, but also from planters being unwilling to turn their cotton fields over to grow food, holding out hope instead to export cotton abroad. That caused food shortages and bread riots , often led by women.

police-risk-management.com/order/hidden/sax-come-trovare-il.php Some rioters even threatened the Confederate White House in Richmond. Like all young governments, including the U. When the value drops, the natural tendency is to print more of it, but that only spurs inflation. Meanwhile, the North succeeded in raising funds, selling war bonds through a network of banks and printing cash. Philadelphia banker Jay Cooke organized the bond sales.


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American cash, as we know it today, is a product of the Civil War. Paper money and notes existed all the way back to the Revolution, but they were often issued by private banks or states. It then created the Secret Service to police counterfeiting. As in the North, the South ran out of volunteer soldiers the first year. Like the Union draft, the CSA exempted the rich, in this case, the very planter class on whose behalf the war was arguably being fought. The Twenty Negro Law exempted one person per plantation per 20 slaves owned.

They reduced the number to 15 when they discovered that too many planters had sons in combat. One famous and early Confederate deserter was Mark Twain, whose Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was an indirect broadside against slavery. Though many poor Whites owned a slave or two themselves and others made money policing plantations, resentment toward the Confederacy formed along class lines.